won lea

Wednesday, September 18, 2013

Maradona ( top player of the 20th century.) Biography

Diego Maradona Biography

Diego Maradona was one of possibly the two greatest soccer players ever (Pele being the other). Though Pele may have been a rival, the two played separate positions, and Maradona remains the greatest midfielder of all time...


Diego Armando Maradona was born into a poverty stricken family in 1961.
He had no real advantages which would help him become a famous soccer player (his immediate family couldn't even afford a soccer ball). However, his cousin bought him a soccer ball for his third birthday.
From an early age Diego Maradona would play in the streets with his friends. His skills developed very quickly, and by the age of ten, he was spotted by a scout from the Argentinos Juniors.
He proceeded to lead the youth team (Los Cebollitas) to a junior championship.
Once old enough, he moved up to the regular team in 1976 after becoming the star of the junior team.
Upon Joining the team, he was given the number 10, which was a great honor as it was the number the great Pele had worn.
Before the end of his first season with the team, fans were swarming to the stands to see this teenage star play.
The Argintinos Juniors were now defeating some of the better teams in their league, as this new star continued to shine.
After five outstanding seasons with the Argintinos Juniors, he was transferred to the powerful Argintian club, Boca Juniors.

International Starting

After doing very well for the Boca Juniors, and appearing a few times internationally, Diego Maradona joined the Argintinian National team in the 1982 World Cup.
Surprisingly, he played in all of the Argintinian games. He also surprised many by scoring two goals in a game verse Hungary.
After seeing him play well for the Barca Juniors and do well in the World Cup, FC Barcelona decided to take him on for the unheard of amount of $7.7 million!

Making History

Maradona did not have the kind of season that he had hoped for upon switching to Barcelona. It only took him two years to be switched over to the Italian club, SSC Napoli.
His performance began to pick up again, once he joined his new team.

From there, he proceeded to play in the 1986 World Cup. This was one of the greatest tournaments of his career.
He shredded the league, and led Argintina to a huge World Cup win.
Maradona's greatest goal was scored in that tournament. Many still call it the goal of the century. He received the ball at half field, dribbled through 5 defenders, and faked the keeper for the score!

However, he also scored a controversial goal against England, in which he punched the ball into the net, and faked a header so that the goal was given. He said, afterward, that it was "the hand of God".
Later he apologized on TV, saying that "It was the hand of Maradona not God".

Career Endings

From the 1986 World Cup, Maradona's playing began to take a decline.
By the time he entered the 1990 World Cup, he was not at his best (partially due to an ankle injury), and missed some things he shouldn't have.
They did make it to the finals, but lost the game.
Maradona began switching teams. He switched clubs 2 times in 2 years (1992 & 1993) before going back to Barca Juniors in 1995.
He did appear in the 1994 World Cup as well. However, he was hitting the end of his career and lacked his former spark.

Monday, September 16, 2013

Nelson Mandela Biography

A towering figure in 20th century history, Nobel Laureate Nelson Mandela showed how wisdom and patience can triumph over bigotry and brute force. Truly the Father of a Nation.

Nelson Rolihlahla Mandela was the son of one of South Africa's leading dignitaries, Chief Henry Mandela of the Tembu Tribe, and it was as a young law student that he became involved in political opposition to the white minority regime. Joining the African National Congress (ANC) in 1942, he co-founded its more dynamic Youth League two years later.

The 1948 election victory of the Afrikaner-dominated National Party led to the apartheid system of racial segregation becoming law. Mandela rose to prominence in the ANC's 1952 Defiance Campaign and the 1955 Congress of the People, whose adoption of the Freedom Charter provided the fundamental programme of the anti-apartheid cause.
Initially committed to non-violent mass struggle and acquitted in the marathon Treason Trial of 1956-1961, Mandela and his colleagues accepted the case for armed action after the shooting of unarmed protesters at Sharpeville in March 1960 and the banning of anti-apartheid groups.
In 1961, he became the commander of the ANC's armed wing, Umkhonto we Sizwe. In August of the following year, he was arrested and jailed for five years. In June 1964, he was sentenced again, this time to life imprisonment, for his involvement in planning armed action.
He started his prison years in the infamous Robben Island Prison, a maximum security facility on a small island off the coast of Cape Town. In April 1984, he was transferred to Pollsmoor Prison in Cape Town and in December 1988 he was moved to the Victor Verster Prison near Paarl from where he was eventually released.
During his incarceration Mandela taught himself to speak Afrikaans and learned about Afrikaner history. He was able to converse with his guards in their own language, using his charm and intelligence to reason with them and try to understand the way they thought. This caused the authorities to replace the guards around regularly Mandela as it was felt that they could were becoming too lenient in their treatment of their famous prisoner.
While in prison, Mandela rejected offers made by his jailers for remission of sentence in exchange for accepting the Bantustan policy by recognising the independence of the Transkei region and agreeing to settle there. Amongst opponents of apartheid in South Africa and internationally, he became a cultural symbol of freedom and equality.
Mandela remained in prison until February 1990, when sustained ANC campaigning and international pressure led to his release. On 2 February 1990, South African President F.W. de Klerk lifted the ban on the ANC and other anti-apartheid organisations. Mandela was released from Victor Verster Prison on 11 February 1990.
He and President de Klerk - who did much to dismantle the institutions of apartheid - shared the Nobel Peace Prize in 1993. In Mandela's 1994 autobiography, 'Long Walk to Freedom', he did not reveal anything about the alleged complicity of de Klerk in the violence of the 1980s and 90s, or the role of his ex-wife Winnie Mandela in that bloodshed. However, he later discussed those issues in 'Mandela: The Authorised Biography'.
After his release, Mandela returned to the leadership of the ANC and, between 1990 and 1994, led the party in the multi-party negotiations that resulted in the country's first multi-racial elections. As the first black president of South Africa (1994 - 1999) he presided over the transition from minority rule and apartheid. He won praise for his leadership during this time, even from his former white opponents in South Africa.
Following his retirement as president in 1999, Mandela went on to become an advocate for a variety of social and human-rights organisations. He used his status as a respected elder statesman to give weight to pertinent issues, declaring the United States "a threat to world peace" in 2002 while calling on then president George W Bush not to launch attacks on Iraq.
Because his health was declining, Mandela chose to retire from public life in 2004 and went on to reduce his number of appearances, although he was too prominent a figure to disappear completely. His name has been used to promote charitable ventures close to his heart such as the Nelson Mandela Invitational charity golf tournament, which has raised millions of rand for children's charities since its establishment in 2000.
The fight against Aids is one of Mandela's primary concerns and he used his gravitas to raise awareness about the issue on the global stage. Having backed the 46664 Aids fundraising campaign, which was named after his prison number, he went on to call for more openness in discussing the condition. His son Makgatho Mandela died of Aids in 2005 and the statesman used the occasion to tell people that not hiding the condition, but talking about it, is the only way to break the stigma.
In 2007, he brought together elder statesmen, peace activists and human rights advocates including Kofi Annan, Jimmy Carter, Ela Bhatt, Gro Harlem Brundtland and Li Zhaoxing under a non-governmental organisation dubbed The Elders. The aim of the organisation was to combine the elders' collective wisdom and use it to solve some of the world's problems.
Although he spoke out less about issues affecting neighbouring country Zimbabwe in his retirement, Mandela attempted to persuade President Robert Mugabe to vacate office with some dignity in 2007. However, Mr Mugabe ignored him and hung on to power, leading Mandela to slam the "tragic failure of leadership" in June 2008 when Zimbabwe was in crisis following disputed presidential elections.
In November 2009, Mandela's contributions to world freedom were rewarded with a unique gesture by the United Nations General Assembly. The body announced that his birthday, 18 July, would be known as Mandela Day. The recipient of hundreds of awards and honorary recognitions, including the Nobel Peace Prize, Mandela continues to exert influence on the world even without being actively involved in issues.
His last public outing was during the closing ceremony of the 2010 FIFA World Cup in Johannesburg. In January 2011, Mandela was hospitalised, prompting concerns about the health of the 92-year-old statesman. The Nelson Mandela Foundation revealed that he was in Milpark Hospital in Johannesburg, although it said his life was not in jeopardy. He was allowed home after a couple of days and was transported home, where he leads a quiet retirement.
On 18 July 2012, Mandela's 94th birthday, 12 million schoolchildren across South Africa honoured him with a specially composed song to mark the day. Meanwhile, Mandela celebrated quietly at home with his family.
Mandela has been married three times, including a 38-year marriage to politician Winnie Madikizela, who was his second wife. They wed in 1958 and had daughter Zenani the same year. Their second daughter Zindzi was born in 1960. His youngest daughter was just 18 months old when he was sent to prison.
Nelson and Winnie separated in 1992 and divorced in 1996. His first marriage to Evelyn Mase had also ended in divorce in 1957 due to his devotion to revolutionary agitation.
They had been together for 13 years and had four children together including Thembi, who was born in 1946. He died in a car crash in 1969 at the age of 23 and Mandela was not allowed to go to the funeral as he was in jail. Their first daughter Maki, who was born in 1947, died at just nine months old and the couple named their second daughter in 1953 in her honour. Makgatho was born in 1950.
On his 80th birthday he married Graca Machel, widow of the late Mozambican president Samora Machel. The couple now live at his home in Qunu.
Mandela spent more time in hospital towards the end of 2012, suffering from a lung infection and gallstones. He was discharged a few days before New Year and started 2013 at home surrounded by his family.

Saturday, September 14, 2013

Buddha biography

Siddhartha Gautama, who would one day become known as Buddha ("enlightened one" or "the awakened"), lived in Nepal during the 6th to 4th century B.C. While scholars agree that he did in fact live, the events of his life are still debated. According to the most widely known story of his life, after experimenting with different teachings for years, and finding none of them acceptable, Gautama spent a fateful night in deep meditation. During his meditation,
all of the answers he had been seeking became clear, and achieved full awareness, thereby becoming Buddha.

Early Years

The Buddha, or "enlightened one," was born Siddhartha (which means "he who achieves his aim") Gautama, a prince in India in the 6th century B.C. His father was a king who ruled an Indian tribe called the Shakyas. His mother died seven days after giving birth to him, but a holy man prophesized great things for the young Siddhartha: He would either be a great king or military leader or he would be a great spiritual leader. To keep his son from witnessing the miseries and suffering of the world, Siddhartha's father raised him in opulence in a palace built just for the boy and sheltered him from knowledge of religion and human hardship. According to custom, he married at the age of 16, but his life of total seclusion continued for another 13 years.

Beyond the Palace Walls

The prince reached his late 20s with little experience of the world outside the walls of his opulent palaces, but one day he ventured out beyond the palace walls and was quickly confronted with the realities of human frailty: He saw a very old man, and Siddhartha's charioteer explained that all people grow old. Questions about all he had not experienced led him to take more journeys of exploration, and on these subsequent trips he encountered a diseased man, a decaying corpse and an ascetic. The charioteer explained that the ascetic had renounced the world to seek release from the human fear of death and suffering. Siddhartha was overcome by these sights, and the next day, at age 29, he left his kingdom, wife and son to lead an ascetic life, and determine a way to relieve the universal suffering that he now understood to be one of the defining traits of humanity.

The Ascetic Life and Enlightenment

For the next six years, Siddhartha lived an ascetic life and partook in its practices, studying and meditating using the words of various religious teachers as his guide. He practiced his new way of life with a group of five ascetics, and his dedication to his quest was so stunning that the five ascetics became Siddhartha's followers. When answers to his questions did not appear, however, he redoubled his efforts, enduring pain, fasting nearly to starvation, and refusing water.
Whatever he tried, Siddhartha could not reach the level of satisfaction he sought, until one day when a young girl offered him a bowl of rice. As he accepted it, he suddenly realized that corporeal austerity was not the means to achieve inner liberation, and that living under harsh physical constraints was not helping him achieve spiritual release. So he had his rice, drank water and bathed in the river. The five ascetics decided that Siddhartha had given up the ascetic life and would now follow the ways of the flesh, and they promptly left him. From then on, however, Siddhartha encouraged people to follow a path of balance instead of one characterized by extremism. He called this path the Middle Way.

The Buddha Emerges

That night, Siddhartha sat under the Bodhi tree, vowing to not get up until the truths he sought came to him, and he meditated until the sun came up the next day. He remained there for several days, purifying his mind, seeing his entire life, and previous lives, in his thoughts. During this time, he had to overcome the threats of Mara, an evil demon, who challenged his right to become the Buddha. When Mara attempted to claim the enlightened state as his own, Siddhartha touched his hand to the ground and asked the Earth to bear witness to his enlightenment, which it did, banishing Mara. And soon a picture began to form in his mind of all that occurred in the universe, and Siddhartha finally saw the answer to the questions of suffering that he had been seeking for so many years. In that moment of pure enlightenment, Siddhartha Gautama became the Buddha ("he who is awake").
Armed with his new knowledge, the Buddha was initially hesitant to teach, because what he now knew could not be communicated to others in words. According to legend, it was then the king of gods, Brahma, who convinced Buddha to teach, and he got up from his spot under the Bodhi tree and set out to do just that.
About 100 miles away, he came across the five ascetics he had practiced with for so long, who had abandoned him on the eve of his enlightenment. To them and others who had gathered, he preached his first sermon (henceforth known as Setting in Motion the Wheel of the Dharma), in which he explained the Four Noble Truths and the Eightfold Path, which became the pillars of Buddhism. The ascetics then became his first disciples and formed the foundation of the Sangha, or community of monks. Women were admitted to the Sangha, and all barriers of class, race, sex and previous background were ignored, with only the desire to reach enlightenment through the banishment of suffering and spiritual emptiness considered.
For the remainder of his 80 years, Buddha traveled, preaching the Dharma (the name given to the teachings of the Buddha) in an effort to lead others to and along the path of enlightenment. When he died, it is said that he told his disciples that they should follow no leader.
The Buddha is undoubtedly one of the most influential figures in world history, and his teachings have affected everything from a variety of other faiths (as many find their origins in the words of the Buddha) to literature to philosophy, both within India and to the farthest reaches of the Western world.

Thursday, September 12, 2013

Steve Jobs Biography(2)

  Steve Jobs Biography (1)





Departure from Apple

However, the next several products from Apple suffered significant design flaws resulting in recalls and consumer disappointment. IBM suddenly surpassed Apple sales, and Apple had to compete with an IBM/PC dominated business world. In 1984, Apple released the Macintosh, marketing the computer as a piece of a counter culture lifestyle: romantic, youthful, creative. But despite positive sales and performance superior to IBM's PCs, the Macintosh was still not IBM compatible. Scully believed Jobs was hurting Apple, and executives began to phase him out.
In 1985, Jobs resigned as Apple's CEO to begin a new hardware and software company called NeXT, Inc. The following year Jobs purchased an animation company from George Lucas, which later became Pixar Animation Studios. Believing in Pixar's potential, Jobs initially invested $50 million of his own money into the company. Pixar Studios went on to produce wildly popular animation films such as Toy Story, Finding Nemo and The Incredibles. Pixar's films have netted $4 billion. The studio merged with Walt Disney in 2006, making Steve Jobs Disney's largest shareholder.

Reinventing Apple

Despite Pixar's success, NeXT, Inc. floundered in its attempts to sell its specialized operating system to mainstream America. Apple eventually bought the company in 1997 for $429 million. That same year, Jobs returned to his post as Apple's CEO.
Much like Steve Jobs instigated Apple's success in the 1970s, he is credited with revitalizing the company in the 1990s. With a new management team, altered stock options and a self-imposed annual salary of $1 a year, Jobs put Apple back on track. His ingenious products such as the iMac, effective branding campaigns, and stylish designs caught the attention of consumers once again.

Pancreatic Cancer

In 2003, Jobs discovered that he had a neuroendocrine tumor, a rare but operable form of pancreatic cancer. 
 Instead of immediately opting for surgery, Jobs chose to alter his pescovegetarian diet while weighing Eastern treatment options. For nine months, Jobs postponed surgery, making Apple's board of directors nervous. Executives feared that shareholders would pull their stocks if word got out that their CEO was ill. But in the end, Jobs's confidentiality took precedence over shareholder disclosure. In 2004, he had a successful surgery to remove the pancreatic tumor. True to form, in subsequent years,
Jobs disclosed little about his health.

Later Innovations

Apple introduced such revolutionary products as the Macbook Air, iPod and iPhone, all of which have dictated the evolution of modern technology. Almost immediately after Apple releases a new product, competitors scramble to produce comparable technologies. Apple's quarterly reports improved significantly in 2007: Stocks were worth $199.99 a share—a record-breaking number at that time—and the company boasted a staggering $1.58 billion dollar profit, an $18 billion dollar surplus in the bank and zero debt.
In 2008, iTunes became the second biggest music retailer in America-second only to Wal-Mart. Half of Apple's current revenue comes from iTunes and iPod sales, with 200 million iPods sold and six billion songs downloaded. For these reasons, Apple has been ranked No. 1 on Fortune magazine's list of "America's Most Admired Companies," as well as No. 1 among Fortune 500 companies for returns to shareholders.

Personal Life

Early in 2009, reports circulated about Jobs's weight loss, some predicting his health issues had returned, which included a liver transplant. Jobs had responded to these concerns by stating he was dealing with a hormone imbalance. After nearly a year out of the spotlight, Steve Jobs delivered a keynote address at an invite-only Apple event September 9, 2009.
In respect to his personal life, Steve Jobs remained a private man who rarely discloses information about his family. What is known is Jobs fathered a daughter with girlfriend Chrisann Brennan when he was 23. Jobs denied paternity of his daughter Lisa in court documents, claiming he was sterile. Jobs did not initiate a relationship with his daughter until she was 7 but, when she was a teenager, she came to live with her father.
In the early 1990s, Jobs met Laurene Powell at Stanford business school, where Powell was an MBA student. They married on March 18, 1991, and lived together in Palo Alto, California, with their three children.

Final Years

On October 5, 2011, Apple Inc. announced that its co-founder had passed away. After battling pancreatic cancer for nearly a decade, Steve Jobs died in Palo Alto. He was 56 years old.

Steve Jobs Biography (1)

Steve Jobs was born in San Francisco, California, on February 24, 1955, to two University of Wisconsin graduate students who gave him up for adoption. Smart but directionless, Jobs experimented with different pursuits before starting Apple Computers with Steve Wozniak in 1976. Apple's revolutionary products, which include the iPod, iPhone and iPad, are now seen as dictating the evolution of modern technology. He died in 2011,
following a long battle with pancreatic cancer.

Early Life

Steven Paul Jobs was born on February 24, 1955, in San Francisco, California, to Joanne Schieble (later Joanne Simpson) and Abdulfattah "John" Jandali, two University of Wisconsin graduate students who gave their unnamed son up for adoption. His father, Abdulfattah Jandali, was a Syrian political science professor and his mother, Joanne Schieble, worked as a speech therapist. Shortly after Steve was placed for adoption, his biological parents married and had another child, Mona Simpson. It was not until Jobs was 27 that he was able to uncover information on his biological parents.
As an infant, Steven was adopted by Clara and Paul Jobs and named Steven Paul Jobs. Clara worked as an accountant and Paul was a Coast Guard veteran and machinist. The family lived in Mountain View within California's Silicon Valley. As a boy, Jobs and his father would work on electronics in the family garage. Paul would show his son how to take apart and reconstruct electronics, a hobby which instilled confidence, tenacity and mechanical prowess in young Jobs.
While Jobs has always been an intelligent and innovative thinker, his youth was riddled with frustrations over formal schooling. A prankster in elementary school, Jobs's fourth-grade teacher needed to bribe him to study. Jobs tested so well, however, that administrators wanted to skip him ahead to high school—a proposal that his parents declined.
Not long after Jobs did enroll at Homestead High School (1971), he was introduced to his future partner, Steve Wozniak, through a friend of Wozniak's. Wozniak was attending the University of Michigan at the time. In a 2007 interview with ABC News, Wozniak spoke about why he and Jobs clicked so well: "We both loved electronics and the way we used to hook up digital chips," Wozniak said. "Very few people, especially back then had any idea what chips were, how they worked and what they could do. I had designed many computers so I was way ahead of him in electronics and computer design, but we still had common interests. We both had pretty much sort of an independent attitude about things in the world. ..."

Apple Computers

After high school, Jobs enrolled at Reed College in Portland, Oregon. Lacking direction, he dropped out of college after six months and spent the next 18 months dropping in on creative classes. Jobs later recounted how one course in calligraphy developed his love of typography.
In 1974, Jobs took a position as a video game designer with Atari.
 Several months later he left Atari to find spiritual enlightenment in India, traveling the continent and experimenting with psychedelic drugs. In 1976, when Jobs was just 21, he and Wozniak started Apple Computers. The duo started in the Jobs family garage,
and funded their entrepreneurial venture after Jobs sold his Volkswagen bus and Wozniak sold his beloved scientific calculator.

Jobs and Wozniak are credited with revolutionizing the computer industry by democratizing the technology and making the machines smaller, cheaper, intuitive and accessible to everyday consumers. Wozniak conceived a series of user-friendly personal computers, and—with Jobs in charge of marketing—Apple initially marketed the computers for $666.66 each, and the Apple I earned the corporation around $774,000. Three years after the release of Apple's second model, the Apple II, the company's sales increased by 700 percent, to $139 million. In 1980, Apple Computer became a publicly traded company, with a market value of $1.2 billion on its very first day of trading. Jobs looked to marketing expert John Scully of Pepsi-Cola to help fill the role of Apple's president.

Pope Francis Biography


Born in Buenos Aires, Argentina, on December 17, 1936, Jorge Mario Bergoglio became Pope Francis on March 13, 2013, when he was named the 266th pope of the Roman Catholic Church. Bergoglio, the first pope from the Americas, reportedly took his papal title after St. Francis of Assisi of Italy. Prior to his election as pope, Bergoglio served as archbishop of Buenos Aires from 1998 to 2013 (succeeding Antonio Quarracino),  as cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church of Argentina from 2001 to 2013, and as president of the Bishops' Conference of Argentina from 2005 to 2011. Pope Francis made his first international visit in July 2013, traveling to Brazil.

Early Life and Education

Jorge Mario Bergoglio was born in Buenos Aires, Argentina, on December 17, 1936, to Italian immigrants. As a teenager, Bergoglio underwent surgery to remove a lung due to serious infection. Following his high school graduation, he enrolled at the University of Buenos Aires, where he received a master's degree in chemistry before beginning training at the Jesuit seminary of Villa Devoto. In March 1958, he entered the Society of Jesus.
Bergoglio went on to attend the Philosophical and Theological Faculty of San Miguel, where he earned a degree in philosophy, and later received a doctorate in theology in Freiburg, Germany.

Entering Priesthood

Ordained as a priest in December 1969, Bergoglio began serving as Jesuit provincial of Argentina in 1973. He later returned to his alma mater, the Philosophical and Theological Faculty of San Miguel, where he served as rector (1980-86) as well as a professor of theology.
In June 1992, Bergoglio was named titular bishop of Auca and auxiliary of Buenos Aires, and in February 1998, he became archbishop of Buenos Aires, succeeding Antonio Quarracino. Three years later, in February 2001, he was elevated to cardinal by Pope John Paul II, named the cardinal-priest of Saint Robert Bellarmine. In 2005, he was named president of the Bishops' Conference of Argentina, serving in that position until 2011.
After Pope John Paul II's death in April 2005, Bergoglio reportedly received the second-most votes in the 2005 papal election; Pope Benedict XVI (Joseph Ratzinger) won election as Pope John Paul's successor.
Early into his priesthood, Bergoglio earned a reputation as a doctrinal conservative. He strongly opposed the legalization of same-sex marriage in Argentina, calling it "a destructive attack on God's plan" (a same-sex marriage bill was approved by Argentinian lawmakers in July 2010, making Argentina the first country in Latin America to legalize such legislation). He also publicly disputed efforts to promote free contraception and artificial insemination led by Argentinian President Cristina Fernandez.

Becoming Pope

On March 13, 2013, at the age of 76, Jorge Bergoglio was named the 266th pope of the Roman Catholic Church—becoming the first citizen from the Americas, the first non-European and first Jesuit priest to be named pope, and adopting the name Pope Francis (he reportedly took the title after St Francis of Assisi of Italy, a Catholic preacher during the 12th and 13th centuries). Prior to the 2013 papal election, Pope Francis had served as both archbishop and cardinal for more than 12 years.
Addressing a crowd of tens of thousands in St. Peter's Square, in the Vatican City in Rome, Italy, after his election win, Pope Francis stated, "As you know,
the duty of the conclave was to appoint a bishop of Rome. It seems to me that my brother cardinals have chosen one who is from faraway. ...Here I am. I would like to thank you for your embrace."
After the 2013 papal election results were announced, U.S. President Barack Obama issued a statement about the new pope: "As the first pope from the Americas, his selection also speaks to the strength and vitality of a region that is increasingly shaping our world, and alongside millions of Hispanic Americans, those of us in the United States share the joy of this historic day."
In addition to his native Spanish, Bergoglio speaks Italian and German.

First International Visit as Pope

Pope Francis made his first international visit on July 22, 2013, when he arrived at the Galateo-Antonio Carlos Jobim International Airport in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. There, he was greeted by Brazilian President Dilma Rousseff in a welcome ceremony, later circulating downtown Rio in order to be "close to the people."
While in Rio, Pope Francis was on hand to celebrate World Youth Day. More than 3 million people attended the pontiff's closing mass at the event. On his way back to Rome, Pope Francis surprised reporters traveling with him regarding his seemingly open stance on gay Catholics. According to The New York Times, he told the press that "If someone is gay and he searches for the Lord and has good will, who am I to judge?" His remarks were heralded by several gay and lesbian groups as a welcoming gesture by the Roman Catholic Church.

Pope as Spiritual and World Leader

In September 2013, Pope Francis called for others to join him in praying for peace in Syria. The pontiff held a special vigil in St. Peter's Square on September 7, which was attended by roughly 100,000 people. According to the Catholic News Service, Francis told the crowd that "When man thinks only of himself, . . . permits himself to be captivated by the idols of dominion and power, . . . . Then the door opens to violence, indifference and conflict."
The pope implored those involved in the conflict to find a peaceful solution to the conflict. "Leave behind the self-interest that hardens your heart, overcome the indifference that makes your heart insensitive towards others, conquer your deadly reasoning, and open yourself to dialogue and reconciliation."
Hope you you enjoyed reading my post & found it useful
You may be also interested in

Wednesday, September 11, 2013

Hippocrates (The ancient Greek physician the father of medicine) biography

The ancient Greek physician Hippocrates is called the father of medicine. He changed the course of Greek medicine with his certainty that disease was not caused by gods or spirits but was the result of natural action.

Early life

Hippocrates was born on the Aegean island of Cos, just off the Ionian coast near Halicarnassus (island of Greece) during the end of the fifth century B.C.E. He is called Hippocrates Asclepiades, "descendant of (the doctor-god) Asclepios," but it is uncertain whether this descent was by family or merely by his becoming attached to the medical profession. Legend likewise places him in the family line of the hero Hercules.
Son of Heracleides and Praxithea, Hippocrates's family's wealth permitted him to have a good educational beginning as a child. After nine years of physical education, reading, writing, spelling, music, singing, and poetry, he went to a secondary school, where he spent two years and had very thorough athletic training. It is likely that he went on to study medicine under his father in a form of apprenticeship (arrangement to learn a trade through work experience). This involved following his father and another doctor, Herodicos, from patient to patient and observing their treatment. It is believed that his training included traveling to the Greek mainland and possibly to Egypt and Libya to study medical practices.

Adult talents

Hippocrates is credited with healing many, including the king of Macedonia whom he examined and helped to recover from tuberculosis (disease of the lungs). His commitment to healing was put to the test when he battled the plague (a bacteria-caused disease that spreads quickly and can cause death) for three years in Athens (430–427 B.C.E. ). It is also clear that the height of his career was during the Peloponnesian War (431–404 B.C.E. ).
His teaching was as well-remembered as his healing. A symbol of the many students he encouraged is the "Tree of Hippocrates," which shows students sitting under a tree listening to him. In time he apprenticed his own sons, Thessalus and Draco, in the practice of medicine. The teacher and doctor role combined well in 400 B.C.E. , when he founded a school of medicine in Cos.

Hippocratic Corpus

The body of writing attributed to Hippocrates, the Hippocratic Corpus, is a collection of roughly seventy works—the oldest surviving complete medical books. In ancient times some works in the Hippocratic Corpus, the first known edition of which are from the time of the emperor Hadrian (reigned C.E. 117–138), were recognized as having been written by persons other than Hippocrates. Modern scholars have no knowledge of his writing style to prove which of the works Hippocrates wrote. Nowhere in the Hippocratic Corpus is the entire Hippocratic set of guidelines found. Each subject was written with a particular reader in mind. Some books are directed toward the physician, some for the pharmacist, some for the professional physician, and some are directed more at the layman (person who is not an expert in the field).
In Hippocrates's time doctors wrote treatises (written arguments) for the educated public, who in turn discussed medical problems with their doctors. The aim of these books was to teach the layman how to judge a physician—not to advise on self-treatment or even first aid in order to avoid seeing a doctor.
These medical treatises made up the Hippocratic Corpus. Modern readers can see that experimentation played its role in the Hippocratic view of medicine, because the individual approach to disease is nothing more than experimentation. It is obvious, too, that firsthand experience played a part, since throughout the Corpus the plant ingredients of remedies are described by taste and odor. There are also instances of very basic laboratory-type experiments. The Sacred Disease, one treatise of the Hippocratic Corpus, describes dissections (the act of being separated into pieces) of animals, the results of which permitted comparisons to the human body to be drawn. Further, in their attempts to describe the body, the Hippocratics made use of external (outside) observation only. In On Ancient Medicine the internal organs are described as they can be seen or felt externally. It is most unlikely that dissection of the human body was practiced in the fifth century B.C.E.
Hippocrates favored the use of diet and exercise as cures but realized that some people, unable to follow such directions, would need medicine. His writings teach that physical handling could cure some physical troubles, like a dislocated hip, by the doctor moving it back into place. In A Short History of Medicine E. A. Ackerknecht summed it up: "For better or worse Hippocrates observed sick people, not diseases." This attitude is a timely solution to those who formerly insisted on the coldly scientific approach of the Hippocratic physician, who seemed to be so callous toward his patient.
Little is known of Hippocrates's death other than a range of date possibilities. Different sources give dates of either 374 B.C.E. , the earliest date, or 350 B.C.E. , the latest date. What lives on in modern medicine is his commitment to the treatment of disease. 

Hope you you enjoyed reading my post & found it useful
You may be also interested in

Monday, September 9, 2013

Mel Gibson Biography

Born to Hutton Gibson and Anne Reilly Gibson, Mel is the sixth of eleven children. In 1968, when Gibson was 12-years-old, the family emigrated to Sydney, Australia. 

His father had won $21,000 as a contestant on international game show ‘Jeopardy’ and had also received $145,000 compensation for a 1964 work accident that had caused him to lose his job as brakeman for New York City Railroad.
It was an opportunity for Hutton to get his sons away from the cultural changes of 1960s America, which he felt were immoral. He chose Australia, as it was his wife’s homeland, her mother having been an opera singer who had emigrated to the US years before, and she had extended family living there. Gibson kept his American citizenship and acquired an Australian accent.
Gibson attended school at St Leo’s College, run by Christian Brothers but constantly rebelled against their rules. His exasperated father eventually moved him to Asquith High state school, where he settled in to become a typical Aussie teenager. Gibson had no particular vocational yearning, thinking perhaps he may become a priest at one stage and then considering journalism. Extremely shy, he dated little, and usually took his friends along for moral support. He did however enjoy elaborately staged practical jokes and was an excellent mimic, having a penchant for different accents.
It was these skills that made his sister apply, on his behalf but without his knowledge, to the National Institute of Dramatic Art in Sydney. At the time, Gibson had graduated from school and was working at an orange juice-bottling factory. When he was offered a place to study acting at the Institute of Dramatic Art, he gladly accepted, moving out of his parents’ home and in with three of his friends, one of whom was Geoffrey Rush (now an Oscar winning actor). He overcame his stage fright (a result of his shyness) and put all his effort into the course, thoroughly enjoying the theatrical work. Gibson graduated in 1977 and began working on the small screen, appearing in television series ‘The Sullivans’ (1976-1983), ‘Cop Shop’ (1977-1984) and ‘Punishment’ (1981).

However, he hated television work as compared to the theatre, maintaining that good acting was only done within time constraints. He joined the South Australia Theatre Company and toured with ‘Waiting for Godot’. It was during this tour, whilst in Adelaide, that he met his future wife, Robyn Moore, who was working as a dental nurse. They were married on 7 June 1980 and went on to have seven children, first a daughter Hannah (b. 1980) and then six sons, twins Edward and Christian (b. 1982), Willie (b. 1985), Louis (b. 1988), Milo (b. 1990) and Tommy (b. 1999).
Gibson’s first big screen debut came in the form of an uncredited role as a baseball player in ‘I Never Promised You a Rose Garden’ (1977). However, it wasn’t long before he met director Phil Avalon and was cast in his low-budget surfer movie called ‘Summer City’ (1977), enjoying a brief relationship with co-star Deborah Foreman.
Two years later, Gibson was offered the lead role in George Miller’s sensational ‘Mad Max’ (1979). In a strange twist of fate, on the night before the audition Gibson was involved in a boozy fight, which left him with stitches in his head and a badly bruised and beaten face. It was the last thing he needed when trying to impress a casting crew, but it was in fact this ‘look’ that clinched the deal. In a role that secured his arrival as a star, Gibson played ‘Mad’ Max Rockatansky, a ruthless, leather-clad survivor in the savage post-apocalyptic Australian Outback. The film became a cult hit that has since been followed by sequels.

Playing the title role in ‘Tim’ (1979) won Gibson his first Best Actor in a Lead Role Award from The Australian Film Institute and playing Frank Dunne in Peter Weir’s WW1 drama ‘Gallipoli’ (1981) won him his second. Not only was Gibson gaining big screen experience, his acting efforts were being noticed and rewarded, at least in Australia. With his offbeat charm, his magnetism, his piercingly blue eyes and his boyish good looks, he was becoming an obvious choice for male lead roles.
‘Mad Max 2: The Road Warrior’ (1981) was another runaway hit and finally made a star of Gibson in America. To follow were two more war dramas, the mediocre ‘Attack Force Z’ (1982) and the ‘The Year of Living Dangerously’ (1982) with Sigourney Weaver. He starred as Fletcher Christian with Anthony Hopkins, Laurence Olivier, Daniel Day-Lewis and Liam Neeson in ‘The Bounty’ (1984). At this stage, Gibson was already struggling with alcoholism, finding that the inebriation took away his shyness and that he generally drank a whole lot more when he was away from his family, when filming. This caused an on-set rift between himself and Hopkins, a teetotaller at the time. In fact, in Toronto 1984, an inebriated Gibson rear-ended another driver. He pleaded guilty to drunk driving and was fined $300.
Gibson then worked on his first film with an American director and for the first time, adopted an American accent. It was New Yorker Mark Rydell’s epic love story ‘The River’ (1984), in which Gibson starred opposite Sissy Spaceck. He played prisoner Ed Biddle, with Diane Keaton and Matthew Modine, in the romantic drama ‘Mrs Soffel’ (1984) before returning once more to Australia and his Mad Max role, to film the third in the series. It was ‘Mad Max Beyond Thunderdome’ (1985) with Tina Turner as Aunty Entity.
Unbeknownst to Gibson, he was about to become one of the biggest action heroes of all time. Upon his return to America, he was offered the role of Sergeant Martin Riggs in the ‘Lethal Weapon’ series. His partner in this “buddy film” genre was Danny Glover, with whom he shared great onscreen chemistry, helping the series that has spanned almost two decades, to become enormously successful. Between ‘Lethal Weapon’ (1987) and ‘Lethal Weapon 2’ (1989), Gibson starred in the action romance ‘Tequila Sunrise’ (1988) with Michele Pfeiffer and Kurt Russell. Then came adventure comedy ‘Bird on a Wire’ (1990) with David Carradine and the delightful Goldie Hawn, and action comedy ‘Air America’ (1990) with Robert Downey Jr, about the Vietnam War.
In an unusual switch of genres, from action to classical, Gibson played the Danish Prince in Franco Zeffirelli’s ‘Hamlet’ (1990) with co-stars Glenn Close, Alan Bates and Paul Schofield, and certainly held his own. During the filming of ‘Hamlet’, chain-smoking Gibson changed to nicotine gum in an effort to better control his breathing, for the improved delivery of his lines. In 1991 he began treatment for alcoholism, with his wife threatening to leave him if he refused. He then starred with Elijah Wood and Jamie Lee Curtis in ‘Forever Young’ (1992) for which he was also Executive Producer but this role went uncredited. ‘Lethal Weapon 3’ (1992) scored its by-now-usual box-office hit and Gibson made his directorial debut with ‘The Man Without a Face’ (1993). In this heart-warming drama he starred as Justin McLeod. Next was his role as the gambling Bret Maverick Jr in ‘Maverick’ (1994), with charming lady thief played by Jodie Foster.
The unforgettable historical epic ‘Braveheart’ (1995) was Gibson’s second opportunity as Director, in which he played the lead role of 13th century Scottish rebel and hero William Wallace. The film was signed by Icon Productions, a company co-owned by Gibson and Bruce Davey, and Gibson achieved invigorating performances, brutal battle scenes and touching story telling. In short, with very little prior experience at Directing, Gibson surpassed everyone’s expectations by winning two Oscars at the 1996 Academy Awards, for Best Picture and Best Director, as well as a 1996 Golden Globe Award for Best Director. Also released in 1995 was Disney’s animated movie ‘Pocahontas’ for which Gibson provided the voice of John Smith, proving his singing abilities.
‘Ransom’ (1996) was a fast-paced kidnap story that had Gibson playing rich airline owner Tom Mullen, with Rene Russo and Gary Sinese. Julia Roberts starred with Gibson in romantic thriller ‘Conspiracy Theory’ (1997). Also that year were two uncredited cameo roles, as Scott the Body Piercer in ‘Fathers' Day’ (1997) and as Frances’ father in ‘FairyTale: A True Story’ (1997). In 1997, he was awarded the Officer of the Order of Australia, the country’s highest honour. Then came ‘Lethal Weapon 4’ (1998) and the next year, Gibson provided the voice for one episode of the cult television series ‘The Simpsons’ (1999). He played Porter in ‘Payback’ (1999), a remake of the 1968 crime thriller that starred Lee Marvin and Angie Dickinson.
Wim Wenders directed ‘The Million Dollar Hotel’ (2000) in which Gibson played FBI agent Detective Skinner alongside Milla Jovovich and Jeremy Davies. He then provided the voice of Rocky Rhodes the Rhode Island Red Rooster in the much loved animated film ‘Chicken Run’ (2000). ‘The Patriot’ (2000) was a slightly sentimental take on the American revolutionary war and then Gibson played a chauvinistic executive who, after an accident, is able to hear what women are thinking in ‘What Women Want’ (2000) with Helen Hunt, Marissa Tomei, Alan Alda and Bette Midler.
Gibson played Lt. Col. Hal Moore opposite Madeleine Stowe as Julie Moore in ‘We Were Soldiers’ (2002), a true story about the Vietnam War. In ‘Signs’ (2002) he was the Reverend Graham Hess and Joaquin Phoenix played his brother, Merrill Hess, in a story involving crop circles, car accidents and tests of faith. Gibson won a Global Achievement Award from the Australian Film Institute in 2002 in recognition of his contribution to acting. ‘The Singing Detective’ (2003), in which Gibson played a psychotherapist with Robert Downey Jr, Robin Wright Penn and Katie Holmes, topped the box office charts and was America’s biggest summer hit of 2003.
In ‘Paparazzi’ (2004), which he produced, Gibson played an uncredited role as an Anger Management Therapy patient. He admitted to drug and alcohol abuse in a 2004 Primetime interview with Diane Sawyer. Gibson committed himself to rehabilitation, having reached a low point of depression and guilt surrounding his behaviour and having even considered suicide. The need to reconnect with his spiritual side and his own strongly religious upbringing inspired him to direct and produce the film ‘The Passion of the Christ’ (2004). It had been ten years in the research and making and Gibson reportedly spent $25 million of his own money on the project. The blockbuster, created by Icon Productions, the production company co-owned by Gibson and Bruce Davey, was surrounded by controversy before the film was even released. Not since Martin Scorsese’s ‘The Last Temptation of Christ’ (1988) had a religious movie caused such a stir.
Gibson’s father was accused of having denied the Holocaust, to which Gibson replied that his father had been questioning the number of Jewish deaths rather than having denied it ever happened. Jewish pressure groups such as the Anti-Defamation League and the Simon Wiesenthal Centre, responded immediately. Not to be left out, a group of Catholic ecumenists, activists and scholars compiled a list of transgressions in the script and demanded that the film be entirely remade. Some people in Hollywood even turned against Gibson during this difficult time. Determined to see his dream to fruition, he held his ground, even daring to have his actors speak entirely in Aramaic, Hebrew and Latin (although it was all subtitled).
The film told the story of the last hours of Christ in harrowing detail, vividly portraying his violent beatings and humiliation and made for intensely disturbing viewing. The Catholic Church distanced itself from the entire issue, which meant the film remained uncensored. Despite all the controversy, Gibson’s instincts had been correct and the film was nominated for an Academy Award for Original Music Score, Best Cinematography and Best Makeup and won the People’s Choice Award for Best Drama. ‘The Passion of the Christ’ (2004) became the highest grossing R-rated film in American history and the 8th highest grossing movie of all time.
Inspired by this success, Gibson went on to direct the epic ‘Apocalypto’ and was also Executive Producer, Producer and Writer. The title is Greek for “new beginning” or “unveiling”. The film is set during the time of the decline of the Mayan civilization 600 years ago. As in ‘The Passion of the Christ’ (2004), Gibson used local dialect - in this case, Yucatec Maya – and unknown actors. Once again this was self-financed by Gibson, with Icon Productions retaining the international rights whilst Disney will distribute the film in the US.
The man who began his career being typecast as an action hero but who soon proved his great versatility as an actor, is certainly not slowing down after nearly three decades in the business. There is talk of the release of the fourth Mad Max movie, which is in the pre-production stage, with the working title of ‘Mad Max: Fury Road’. ‘Sam and George’, a drama directed by Richard Donner, is due for release in 2008. In the story about old friends reuniting, Gibson plays a man released from prison after serving twenty years for a crime he did not commit.
This award winning actor, director and producer is actually a fiercely private man who genuinely loves his wife and children. He and his wife donate to various charities, particularly those helping needy children around the world. His company, Icon Productions now has offices worldwide and produces international films and television shows. Brought up by strictly Catholic parents, Gibson spent years of drinking, smoking, brawling, gambling and womanising before battling his addictions and the controversy surrounding his personal views and behaviour. He has, at times, voiced prejudiced, anti-Semitic and homophobic statements and been fined more than once for driving misdemeanours involving alcohol, yet he always manages to recover from these incidents.
On 28th July 2006 Gibson fell foul of the law in a return to his old drinking habits. After being pulled over for speeding and drunk driving on the Pacific Coast Highway in Malibu, California, he swore and made a number of sexist and anti-Semitic statements, one of which was, “F***ing Jews… Jews are responsible for all wars in the world.” He was arrested and charged with DUI (Driving Under the Influence) with a blood alcohol level above California’s 0.08 legal limit. He was also cited for a vehicle code infraction for having an open bottle of Tequila in his car when he was stopped. The following day, he issued two formal apologies for his behaviour and his comments upon being arrested, specifically apologising to the Jewish community in the second one. On 17th August 2006, he pleaded guilty to his charges and was sentenced to three years on probation, his licence was restricted for 90 days and he was fined $1 300. The Superior Court Judge also ordered Gibson to attend regular Alcoholics Anonymous meetings and to enter a rehabilitation programme.
With such talent and potential to keep achieving in the world of entertainment, here’s hoping Gibson manages to conquer his addictions once and for all and that his desire to become more spiritual will help him through the process and eradicate the controversy that often clouds an otherwise bright and ambitious character.
After 26 years of marriage, Mel and Robyn Gibson separated on 29 July 2006. In a 2011 interview, Gibson revealed that the separation occurred the day after his drunk driving arrest.
In a joint statement, the couple said: "Throughout our marriage and separation we have always strived to maintain the privacy and integrity of our family and will continue to do so."
Robyn cited irreconcilable differences and filed for divorce on 13 April 2009 after the publication of Mel embracing Russian pianist Oksana Grigorieva on a beach.

The divorce was finalised on 23 December 2011, with the settlement reaching $400,000,000 - one of the largest in Hollywood history.

Gibson made his first red carpet appearance with Grigorieva on 28 April 2009 and she gave birth to their daughter Lucia on 30 October 2009. In April 2010, it was revealed the pair had split and each party took out a restraining order on the other.

He returned to film in 'The Edge of Darkness' as a homicide detective investigating his daughter's death in 2010.

Gibson starred alongside Jodie Foster, who also directed 'The Beaver' in 2011 as a troubled husband and executive who adopts a beaver hand puppet as his sole mean of communication.

Hope you you enjoyed reading my post & found it useful
You may be also interested in